It is currently in chrysalis form and I don't know if it's going to eclose now or it is in diapause. It formed the chrysalis on September 19 and so today it is 15 days since. I would like to know if I should put it outside and resume the project in the spring, or wait a few more days for it to eclose.
What makes this difficult to determine is that it's colour is contrary to all the information I found on various sites. For one it is said that the chrysalis will take on the colour that matches the substrate. So brown substrate = brown chrysalis. Same with green. However mine is the opposite green chrysalis on brown substrate.
Furthermore I found this site which claims that "ALL diapausing chrysalises in this species will turn brown no matter what their substrate color." I do not know if this is true or not.
So my question Is it possible that not ALL diapausing chrysalises turn brown and some remain green?
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Stay away from using absolutes, or sources that do. "always/never/all/none" is invariably bound to be discredited; it doesn't matter if you're talking about butterfly pupae or Corvette production options.
Of the thousands of Actias luna I raised, about 5% of pupae would refuse to emerge the following summer, and continue on through a second winter. One of our Canadian members experienced 2 winter dipause with Papilio.
I would not expect yours at 20C to emerge immediately, though it may emerge very early (December? March?). If you simply put it outside it will probably be eaten. I typically put pupae in tupperware with holes to allow some airflow and stick them in the garage; others put them in the refrigerator with good success.
Note too, the link you provided as reference to the pupae color is discussing the west coast Papilio zelicaon, not your Papilio polyxenes.
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I agree with Bob. In the machaon group daylength is very important, probably more than temperature if you are talking about ~20C rather than ~30C. If the daylength is shortening during 4th to 5th instar diapause will be triggered.
I recommend you keep the pupa in the solarium for a few weeks, just in case it has not gone into diapause. If it has not emerged by the time you need to put on the heating you should put it in a sealed plastic box (no air holes!) and put that in the veggie compartment in the fridge. Cut the twig it is pupating on just above and below the pupa, and then in spring you can attach the twig to the inside of a cage for it to emerge. You can take the pupa out of the fridge in spring and it should emerge about two weeks later.
Do let us know what happens.
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I'd agree that day length is more of a factor with what caterpillars do when they mature. While temperatures are going to
have an effect, it's day length, animals tell time that way. That way, they don't get off track by a few weeks of warm weather in the winter or
I'm not sure which end the eyes are, but this was the best I could do. The top part was pretty opaque so I didn't bother trying to get closer with the flashlight in that area.
To me it looks very translucent in the middle and also at the very end
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The light is shining through the wings. The eyes will form at the top of the pupa.erotavlas wrote: ↑Tue Oct 04, 2022 10:53 pmI'm not sure which end the eyes are, but this was the best I could do. The top part was pretty opaque so I didn't bother trying to get closer with the flashlight in that area.
To me it looks very translucent in the middle and also at the very end
https://www.google.ca/amp/s/phys.org/ne ... ysalis.amp
The role of latitudinal, genetic and temperature variation
in the induction of diapause of Papilio glaucus (Lepidoptera:
Sean F. Ryan1,2, Patti Valella3,4, Gabrielle Thivierge1, Matthew L. Aardema3,5 and J. Mark Scriber3,6
1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana, USA; 2USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural,
and Veterinary Entomology, 1600/1700 Southwest 23rd Drive, Gainesville, Florida, USA; 3Department of Entomology, Michigan State
University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA; 4Life Science Department, Long Beach City College, Long Beach, California, USA; 5Sackler
Institute for Comparative Genomics, American Museum of Natural History, New York, New York, USA and 6McGuire Center for Lepidoptera
and Diversity, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA
Abstract A key adaptation in insects for dealing with variable environmental conditions is
the ability to diapause. The tiger swallowtail butterflies, Papilio glaucus and P. canadensis
are ideal species to explore the genetic causes and population genetic consequences of
diapause because divergence in this trait is believed to be a salient factor in maintaining
a hybrid zone between these species. Yet little is known about the factors that influence
diapause induction in this system. Here we explored how spatial (latitudinal), environmental
(temperature) and genetic (hybridization) factors affect diapause induction in this system.
Specifically, a series of growth chamber experiments using wild caught individuals from
across the eastern United States were performed to: (1) evaluate how critical photoperiod
varies with latitude, (2) isolate the stage in which induction occurs, (3) test whether changes
in temperature affected rates of diapause induction, and (4) explore how the incidence of
diapause is affected in hybrid offspring. We find that induction occurs in the larval stage, is
not sensitive to a relatively broad range of temperatures, appears to have a complex genetic
basis (i.e., is not simply a dominant trait following a Mendelian inheritance pattern) and
that the critical photoperiod increases by 0.4 h with each increasing degree in latitude.
This work deepens our understanding of how spatial, environmental and genetic variation
influences a key seasonal adaptation (diapause induction) in a well-developed ecological
model system and will make possible future studies that explore how climatic variation
affects the population dynamics and genetics of this system.
Key words adaptation; critical photoperiod; development; diapauses; facultative;
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This is what it looked like right before eclosing.
This is it emerging from chrysalis.
Here it is after the wings fully expanded. Notice there is a drop of fluid at the rear. It actually ejected a lot of this fluid (like other butterflies do) I just don't know what it is, is it waste product, or is it fluid that was used to fill the wings and if left over/ not needed anymore?
Wonderful pictures !
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