New paper - Graphium septentrionicolus

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New paper - Graphium septentrionicolus

Post by adamcotton »

This was published today:

Cotton, A.M., Doleck, T., Zhang, X., Inayoshi, Y., Lohman, D.J. & Hu, S-J. 2022. Graphium septentrionicolus Page & Treadaway, 2013 (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) is a distinct species. Zootaxa 5154 (2): 211–224.

Abstract

After molecular and morphological analyses, the taxon septentrionicolus Page & Treadaway, 2013 is shown to be a distinct
species, and Graphium adonarensis (Rothschild, 1896) is placed as conspecific with Graphium sarpedon (Linnaeus,
1758). Graphium huangshanensis Wu & Ma, 2016 syn. nov. is synonymised with G. septentrionicolus.

The paper can be downloaded (open access) here:

https://mapress.com/zt/article/view/zoo ... .2.6/47693

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Re: New paper - Graphium septentrionicolus

Post by adamcotton »

I thought it would be worth mentioning that if anyone has specimens of 'Graphium sarpedon' from S Tibet, particularly Motuo County from where Chinese sellers sometimes have specimens for sale, these are likely to be Graphium septentrionicolus.

Here are some sample specimen photos

Spring generation:
Image

Summer generation:
Image

Note that I originally thought the summer specimen was Graphium sarpedon, hence the name on the label. It was only when we analysed the DNA of this that we realised they were actually Graphium septentrionicolus, the summer form of which is much larger than G. sarpedon.

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Re: New paper - Graphium septentrionicolus

Post by adamcotton »

Note the long hairs at the base of the hindwing anal fold of Graphium septentrionicolus are cream coloured rather than the pure white of G. sarpedon.

Here is a specimen of G. sarpedon for comparison:
Image

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Re: New paper - Graphium septentrionicolus

Post by Chuck »

Interesting. Thanks Adam.
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Re: New paper - Graphium septentrionicolus

Post by mokky »

Thank you Adam for your new work. I am very much interested in Himalaya butterfly fauna. This new discovery is amazing. I always take it for granted that Graphium sarpedon is one stable species although it shows great individual/seasonal variations. It must be interesting to compare early stages of this sarpedon-complex.
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Re: New paper - Graphium septentrionicolus

Post by adamcotton »

Graphium sarpedon is a complex of mainly allopatric species ranging from Pakistan to Japan and through SE Asia to the Solomon Is and Australia. There are only two instances of overlap between two species known so far, G. sarpedon and septentrionicolus in mainland Asia and G. milon and monticolus in Sulawesi.

As you can see from the attached tree from the paper, G. sarpedon and septentrionicolus are not actually very closely related and septentrionicolus diverged much earlier from the ancestor of most of the sarpedon complex. I should mention that this paper concentrates only on the relationship between G. sarpedon, septentrionicolus and adonarensis. Several other species are included in the tree in order to confirm the relationships of these taxa, and a future study will examine the whole complex.

Image
FIGURE 1. A phylogenetic tree of the Graphium sarpedon species complex reconstructed with BEAST showing that Graphium
septentrionicolus
is not closely related to G. sarpedon. Branch support for this BEAST chronogram is indicated with bullseyes
at each important node. Bayesian inference posterior probability support values are indicated with a ring of colour surrounding a
circle that indicates maximum likelihood ultrafast bootstrap support. See graphic in upper left corner for explanation of support
values associated with each colour. Tip labels indicate species and subspecies (if applicable), collection locality formatted as
two-letter ISO country codes with island or province (if applicable), followed by specimen ID. An asterisk indicates taxa placed
in Graphium adonarensis by Page & Treadaway (2013).

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Re: New paper - Graphium septentrionicolus

Post by adamcotton »

mokky wrote: Fri Jun 17, 2022 3:09 am It must be interesting to compare early stages of this sarpedon-complex.
Indeed, but at this time the early stages of G. septentrionicolus are unknown. Presumably the species feeds on species of Lauraceae.

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Re: New paper - Graphium septentrionicolus

Post by Chuck »

I just gotta ask- Adam, how accurately could you reproduce that phylogenic tree from memory? Don’t be humbly vague, tell the truth.
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Re: New paper - Graphium septentrionicolus

Post by adamcotton »

Not precisely, particularly the middle bit. I certainly wouldn't remember how the various subspecies branch from each other, either in sarpedon or the various species in the middle.

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Re: New paper - Graphium septentrionicolus

Post by laurie2 »

Fantastic work and paper thanks Adam! As always!
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Re: New paper - Graphium septentrionicolus

Post by adamcotton »

Laurie,

Thank you for the comment, I am glad you like it. As you can see it was an international collaboration mainly just to confirm that one taxon is a separate species. It is amazing how many new discoveries are being made from specimens right in front of our eyes, even in such well known groups as Papilionidae.

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